From the Italian "Tessuto milanese", occasionally referred to as a golden hair bracelet (17th century). This type of bracelet originates from the protective metal chain-mail worn under the armour of ancient warriors. Each of the tiny loops is made from gold threads twisted in the same stitch to make a flexible fabric. Its final appearance is achieved by hammering (a rolling process is now used), to produce hard-wearing semi-rigid meshwork which would otherwise be too loose. From the 13th to the 19th centuries, this manufacturing process was the exclusive preserve of the Milanese goldsmiths who catered to princely connoisseurs and the clergy. Mechanisation in the late 19th century made it unique to the town of Pforzheim in Germany. Nowadays, this craft is still pursued in cottage industries throughout northern Italy and in Geneva.