A portable timepiece that functions in all positions. Watches grew out of clocks following the invention of the spring, known to gunsmiths in 1440. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) was familiar with the spring and fusee. Watches were made in Mantua around 1460, in Germany in the late 15th century, and in France in the early 16th century. The earliest watches were worn on the chest, suspended from the neck. They were later carried in waistcoat pockets and, from the 1880s onwards, worn in bracelet form. In the past, the word "watch" referred to the dial. Church clocks had watches inside and outside.